- Radiation Processing
Radiation processing also referred to as technology of industrial production lines and contribute to increase the Sustainable Development Goals, SDG 9 for industry, innovation and infrastructure and SDG 13 for climate action. Build resilient infrastructure, promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization and foster innovation. Isotope for radiation processing has an important role to support the competitiveness technologies for non-destructive testing (safety and quality tests) and irradiation techniques for improving product, process component and structure reliability. They are related to its energy efficiency, ease of control and flexible capabilities for applications involving various types of materials. Radiation processing technologies are very useful for improvement of productivity in industry, agriculture and health care.
- Nuclear Medicine
The focuses area on nuclear medicine is imaging technology and radiotherapy. Isotope for nuclear medicine is the application of radioactive substances in the diagnosis and treatment of a disease including radiopharmaceuticals to image the extent of a disease process in the body. It deals with the useful of isotopes identify medical problems at an earlier stage, applications of treat diseases such as cancer and cancer control, both equipment (radiotherapy machine) and experts to treat cancer effectively. Radiation medicine plays an essential role in the diagnosis and management of a wide range of diseases. Isotope for medical is help achieve the SDG target of reducing deaths from non-communicable diseases by one third by 2030 by one third, in tackling cancer by helping them devise comprehensive cancer control programmes, establishing nuclear medicine and radiology facilities, as well as supporting education and training for specialized health professionals. The image physiological functions, radionuclide therapy, hyperthyroidism, thyroid cancer and blood disorders including isotopes used in nuclear imaging include such as fluorine-18, gallium-67, krypton-81m, rubidium-82, nitrogen-13, technetium-99m, indium-111, iodine-123, xenon-133, thallium-201, hydrogen-2, carbon-13, nitrogen-15, oxygen-18 and sulfur-34.
- Radiation Oncology
In the radiation oncology, isotopes techniques used to improve the health in the diagnosis and management of a wide range of diseases and quality assurance of radiation oncology. This includes specialized professionals radiation oncology, treatment for the best possible healing, cancer treatment outcomes, chemotherapy, targeted therapy and immunotherapy towards maximizing results and minimizing side effects. Also include the topics of gene mapping and DNA sequencing in cancer genomics allows oncologists to specially design a unique treatment plan for specific cancer.
- Industrial Diagnostic Technologies
One of the most talked about areas of isotopes application is industrial diagnostic technologies. This area cover the isotopes for industrial diagnostic supports research in analytical services for safety and improving product, process and structure durability such as X-ray pipelines and control industrial productivity. It is indispensable to the quality assurance required in modern engineering practice and features in the work of multi components.
Technology advancement of this area can help increase nuclear power’s contribution to SDG 7 for “affordable and clean energy” and SDG 9 for “industry, innovation and infrastructure”. Industrial radiography is a method of non-destructive testing where many types of manufactured components and products can be examined to verify the internal structure and integrity of the specimen uses x–rays or gamma rays. Imaging inspection provides real-time inspection and 3D industrial CT scanning to virtually and verify the integrity of internal components. X-ray inspection technologies such as 2D X-ray digital radiography, 3D X-ray Computed tomography and 4D X-ray computed tomography used to inspect objects, failure analysis, product quality screening, internal and external measurement, metrology application, weld quality analysis and assembly verification.
- Environmental Analysis
Environment analysis is used to describe sustainable energy generation technology advances of SDG 7 for affordable, clean energy to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions through nuclear power which is the lowest-carbon technologies available to generate electricity and SDG 13 for climate action. Application of isotopes in managing the natural resources, nuclear and isotopic technology can be a valuable tool in managing our planet’s natural resources and will address SDG 6 for clean water and sanitation; SDG 14 for life below water; and SDG 15 for life on land. The term is also used to describe the technology play role in establishing adequate environmental policies, isotopic techniques shed light on the age and quality of water, integrated water resource management and to protect water and water-related ecosystems. Isotopes technology to conserve and sustainably use the oceans, seas and marine resources for sustainable development and monitor ocean health and marine phenomena like ocean acidification and harmful algal blooms. Isotopic techniques also provide accurate assessments of soil erosion and help to identify erosion hot spots, providing an important tool to reverse land degradation and restore soils. The nuclear techniques and isotopes also important on studying pollution processes of different origin and their connected mechanisms of diffusion.
- Isotope Production and Distribution
Isotopes production and distribution have increased the competitiveness research and industries application of radioactive and stable isotopes for safety, quality, energy, medical and irradiation applications. These activities also support university, laboratory, irradiation facility, distribution of isotopes supply, provides both table and radioactive isotopic materials and services required for many research, development, and commercial applications. The resources are used for operations, maintenance, isotope production, and R&D for new isotope production techniques. Isotopes are used for hundreds of applications that benefit society every day, such as diagnostic medical imaging, cancer therapy, smoke detectors, and neutron detectors for homeland security applications, explosives detection, oil exploration, and tracers for environmental research.
- Nuclear In Agriculture
Isotopes for agriculture applications help respond to climate change, in combating pests that cause human and animal diseases, destroy entire crops of fruit and vegetables. This scope contribution to increasing food supplies by developing new varieties of staple crops which are higher-yielding and more resistant to drought and disease by using radiation-induced mutation techniques. The application of radiation accelerate this mutation process and develop new varieties of crops faster than through traditional plant breeding methods. Atoms for food, agriculture, nutrition, food security, plant nutrition, insect control, mutation, food preservation, animal production and health, fighting pests and diseases and ensuring food safety. Nuclear technology can contribute to SDG 2 for achieving zero hunger around the world, achieve food security and improved nutrition and promote sustainable agriculture by using nuclear and isotopic techniques. Using isotopes techniques to shape agricultural practices for improving conservation methods and protection of resources, ecosystems, biodiversity, study environmental pollution, determine fertilizer uptake and the role of trace elements, control or eliminate pests, prevent losses of crops during storage, improve productivity and health in domestic animals. Radiation is used to control insect populations that are sterilised through irradiation (gamma or X-rays), plant mutation breeding and enhanced the natural process of spontaneous genetic mutation significantly shortening the time it takes.
- Radiation Protection
Radiation protection is the field of safety awareness, procedure and method of handling using radiation sources or use of ionizing radiation particularly in industry and medicine. The associated hazards demand that safe working practices be developed in order to minimize the potential exposure of workers and any other persons who may be in the vicinity of the work. Radiation protection also play important role in qualification, certification and licencing for radiation protection officer and personnel who are involves for radiation equipment’s. Radiation protection for safe handling of radioactive isotopes, for ensuring that all clinical and research use of radioactive materials are safe, implementation of any radioisotope procedure, guide to isotope management in laboratories and inventory control of a radioactive material for regulatory compliance. Radioactive protection also important during radioactive waste management and contamination control. Radiation protection also applied in the field of industrial radiography, inspection for pipelines, power plant, chemical plant and facilities involving radiation source during inspection work. The use of shielded enclosures and safety devices significantly reduces any radiation exposures arising from the work. The availability of the essential equipment, the wide range of working conditions and the fact that the techniques employed usually involve the routine manipulation and exposure of powerful gamma emitting sources and X ray machines have all been identified as contributory to the likelihood of accidents or workers receive radiation doses that exceed dose limits. Radiation protection is thus of great importance and provide technical advices on safety, information for Regulatory Authorities, operating organizations, workers, equipment manufacturers and client organizations, with the intention of explaining their responsibilities and means to enhance radiation protection and safety.